In this section you find the documents referred to in text elsewhere in this site or other interesting literature.

International beach standard ISO 13009:2015

The aim of this International Standard is to help beach operators make better-informed decisions about managing the beaches for which they are responsible, using a consistent approach based on best practice. In addition to general beach organization, this International Standard includes other important aspects, such as providing education and information on beach safety, signage, access and zoning, supervision and rescue, water quality and beach facilities.

Rip hazards

Reading through, a rip current safety website maintained by Dr. Tim Scott and hosted by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), gives a good insight into rip currents, why rip currents are hazardous, and why the chance to survive a rip is small, even if you know the traditional recommendations, which are
  • not to panic,
  • not to swim against the current,
  • to float and wave an arm for help and
  • to swim parallel to the beach until outside of the current, then in diagonal direction to the beach.
The reason is that the human behavior of most swimmers in a rip current situation - no swimming ability in the context of surf experience - stands in the way to get out of a rip.

Beachgoers' beliefs and behaviours in relation to beach flags and rip currents

This study has been carried out by Shauna Sherker, Ann Williamson, Julie Hatfield, Rob Brander, Andrew Hayen, and published in Accident Analysis and Prevention,  2010; 42(6): 1785-1804.

Between the Flags: An Assessment of Domestic and International University Students' Knowledge of Beach Safety in Australia

By Roy Ballantyne, Neil Carr and Karen Hughes, published in Tourism Man 2005, 26(4): 617-22.

The paper assesses the behavior of international and domestic students on beaches in Queensland, Australia and their knowledge of beach safety practices.

Safe Coastal Tourism refers to this article as it quotes interesting articles on tourists' behavior on the beach, on how to change risky behavior to safe behavior, on the protectiveness by tourism industry of beach images as ideal holiday destinations....

Warning signs at beaches: do they work?

Bernadette Matthews, Robert Andronaco, Austin Adams
October 2013
Research done by Life Saving Victoria.
The abstract can be read here.

This study is probably the first study which assesses aquatic safety signage in the field and therefore assesses directly the effectiveness of signage on beachgoers. The study investigates to what extent warning signs on the approach to some popular Victorian beaches (south-east of Australia) add to the existing knowledge of beachgoers exposed to such signage.

Recreation and Tourism

By John Connolly (The Lifesaving Foundation) and Arne Navarra (Philippine Life Saving Society), published in the Handbook on "Drowning, Prevention, Rescue, Treatment",  2nd edition (2013).